Of populations or species occupying mutually
exclusive, but usually adjacent, geographical areas.
A circular or ringlike formation, as of the dermal
scales on the tail of a mammal where one ring of
scales that extends entirely around the tail is
succeeded, posteriorly, by other rings.
Inhabiting or frequenting water.
Inhabiting or frequenting trees contrasted
with fossorial, aquatic, or cursorial.
pertaining to, or designating the tooth next to the
incisors in mammals; fang.
An animal that preys on other animals; especially any
mammal of the Order Carnivora.
Teeth behind the canines.
external ear of a mammal; sometimes the spelling is
concha (plural conchae); the origin of both spellings
is conch or konch, originally a bivalve shell of a
Adapted or modified for running, such as are deer.
(plural, formulae) A brief method for
expressing the number and kind of teeth of mammals.
The abbreviations I (incisor), C (canine), P or Pm
(premolar), and M (molar) indicate the kinds in the
permanent dentition. The number of teeth in each jaw
is written like a fraction; the figure in front of
the diagonal line showing the number in the upper jaw
and that after, the number in the lower jaw. The
dental formula of an adult coyote is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm
4/4, M 2/3 X 2 = 42.
The teeth, considered collectively, of an animal.
Active by day; as opposed to nocturnal.
A process by which enzymes are separated based
on differences in electrical charge. Observed
differences between or within species indicate
mutation and genetic divergence over long periods of
time, thus elucidating the inter-relationships of
Fitted for digging.
The period of carrying young in the uterus, as
applied to placental mammals; the period of
The stiffer, longer hairs which grow up through the
limber, shorter hairs (fur) of a mammals
kind of environment in which a species or organism is
Of an animal, torpidity especially in winter; the
body temperature approximates that of the
surroundings; the rate of respiration and the heart
beat ordinarily are much slower than in an active
front or cutting teeth between the canines.
Pertaining to or in the region of the groin.
Eating insects; preying or feeding on insects.
In a bat, the fold of skin stretching from
hind legs to tail.
An arrangement of chromosomes by size and morphology
to detect changes in chromosomal structure and
arrangement; used to aid in identification of species
and subspecies within a species.
two or more young brought forth at one birth by a
or pertaining to, a molar tooth. One of the teeth
behind the premolar teeth; for example, in the
opossum three on each side in upper jaw and in lower
jaw, making 12 in all. A molar tooth is not preceded
in embryological development by a deciduous (milk)
In a mammal, the act or process of shedding or
casting off the hair, outer layer of skin, or horns;
most mammals shed the hair once, twice, or three
times annually. The castoff covering (obsolete). As a
verb; To be shed or to shed.
Active by night; as opposed to diurnal.
Capable of being placed opposite something else; said
of the first toe of the hind foot in an opossum in
the sense that it can be placed opposite each of the
other toes on that same foot.
The longer hairs of the pelage of a mammal that
project above the fur (shorter hairs).
Pertaining to the ranges of species that are
contiguous but not overlapping.
That part of the foot of a hoofed mammal from the
fetlock to the hoof.
Of, pertaining to, situated, or occurring in or on
Designating, or pertaining to, one of the teeth (a
maximum of four on each side of upper jaw and lower
jaw of placental mammals, or 16 in all) in front of
the true molars. When canine teeth are present,
premolars are behind these teeth; premolars are
preceded by deciduous teeth, and in the upper jaw are
confined to the maxillary bone.
breeding period, as in deer.
Groups of actually (or potentially) interbreeding
natural populations that are reproductively isolated
from other such groups. Reproductive isolation
implies that interbreeding between individuals of two
species normally is prevented by intrinsic factors.
Geographically defined aggregate of local populations
which differs taxonomically from other such
subdivisions of the species.
Pertaining to two or more populations which occupy
overlapping geographical areas.
inner and usually the larger of the two bones of the
hind limb (leg) between the knee and ankle.
Having lost most of the power of exertion; dormant. A
ground squirrel is torpid when it is hibernating.
Having three colors. Said of hair on the back of a
mammal when the hair has three bands each of a
The short hair of a mammal; in temperate and boreal
climates the underfur ordinarily is denser, made up
of more hairs, than the longer and coarser overhair.
The underneath (ventral) side of a mammal (not the
back or sides), as of a wood mouse with white
The top (dorsal) surface and all of the sides (not
belly, chest or throat), as of a wood mouse with
The interfemoral membrane of a bat; that is to say,
the fold of skin that stretches from the hind legs to